Most often or quite often Icon problems are related with virus / malware problems. Run a thorough check with the antivirus / other security program you have. Then, you might do wisely in running an extra on-line check.
You need to try and establish what has caused the problem but you could restore all Windows icons using a free trial of iconpackager from here (one of the installable icon packages is the default Windows package):
This seems to have been a big problem back when Windows 7 first came out.
But most people only had their desktop icons disappear.
I can't actually find a case where all of their icons vanished, and left the text below?
I found so many answers that worked for one person and not another that I don't know what to suggest.
Try and boot into safe mode and see if the same thing happens.
Then let us know.
It wouldn't hurt to run system file checker.
From the elevated Command Prompt (Right click on the Prompt Icon and select run as administrator).
If you have your Windows 7 disc or a Recovery disc, you'll have to use that to do a System Restore/Repair, choosing the option to keep the user files intact.
This seems to be the only method of correcting the icon issue as many have reported from what I have read.