Run a drive fitness test such as Seagate SeaTools if the drive is failing you will need to back up the data or clone it to a new hard drive. If the DFT passes then run chkdsk C: /R do this for each volume
Is it possibly, an external running on a USB? I got the message after the recent MS update to 1903. But they admitted to a USB problem. I ignored the popup, (selected the last option) and the message went away.